Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, USA



 

Notizen: Wikipedia 2017:
Philadelphia is the largest city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and the fifth-most populous city in the United States, with an estimated population of 1,567,442 and more than 6 million in the seventh-largest metropolitan statistical area, as of 2015. Philadelphia is the economic and cultural anchor of the Delaware Valley—a region located in the Northeastern United States at the confluence of the Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers with 7.2 million people residing in the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States.
In 1682, William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia played an instrumental role in the American Revolution as a meeting place for the Founding Fathers of the United States, who signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776 and the Constitution in 1787. Several other key Philadelphia events during the Revolution include the First and Second Continental Congress, the preservation of the Liberty Bell, the Battle of Germantown, the Siege of Fort Mifflin, and the Philadelphia Convention. Philadelphia was one of the nation's capitals in the Revolutionary War, and served as temporary U.S. capital while Washington, D.C., was under construction. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became a major industrial center and railroad hub that grew from an influx of European immigrants. The majority of European immigrants have come from Ireland, Italy and Germany—the three largest reported ancestry groups in the city as of 2015. The city became a prime destination for African Americans during the Great Migration of the 20th century, as well as Puerto Ricans, surpassing two million occupants by 1950.
The area's many universities and colleges make Philadelphia a top international study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational and economic hub. With a gross domestic product of $388 billion, Philadelphia ranks ninth among world cities and fourth in the nation. Philadelphia is the center of economic activity in Pennsylvania and is home to seven Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is growing, with a market of almost 81,900 commercial properties in 2016 including several nationally prominent skyscrapers. The city is known for its arts, culture, and rich history, attracting over 41 million domestic tourists alone in 2015. Philadelphia has more outdoor sculptures and murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the same watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States. The 67 National Historic Landmarks in the city helped account for the $10 billion generated by tourism. Philadelphia is the birthplace of the United States Marine Corps, and is also the home of many U.S. firsts, including the first library (1731), first hospital (1751) and medical school (1765), first Capital (1777), first stock exchange (1790), first zoo (1874), and first business school (1881). Philadelphia is the only World Heritage City in the United States.
Geschichte:
Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape (Delaware) Indians in the village of Shackamaxon. The Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are also called Delaware Indians and their historical territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island and the Lower Hudson Valley. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, exacerbated by losses from intertribal conflicts. Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases, mainly smallpox, and violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people occasionally fought the Lenape. Surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin. The American Revolutionary War and United States' independence pushed them further west. In the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma and surrounding territory) under the Indian removal policy. In the 21st century, most Lenape now reside in the US state of Oklahoma, with some communities living also in Wisconsin, Ontario (Canada) and in their traditional homelands.
Europeans came to the Delaware Valley in the early 17th century, with the first settlements founded by the Dutch, who in 1623 built Fort Nassau on the Delaware River opposite the Schuylkill River in what is now Brooklawn, New Jersey. The Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony. In 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina (present day Wilmington, Delaware) and quickly spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their military defeat of the English colony of Maryland. In 1648, the Dutch built Fort Beversreede on the west bank of the Delaware, south of the Schuylkill near the present-day Eastwick section of Philadelphia, to reassert their dominion over the area. The Swedes responded by building Fort Nya Korsholm, named New Korsholm after a town that is now in Finland. In 1655, a Dutch military campaign led by New Netherland Director-General Peter Stuyvesant took control of the Swedish colony, ending its claim to independence, although the Swedish and Finnish settlers continued to have their own militia, religion, and court, and to enjoy substantial autonomy under the Dutch. The English conquered the New Netherland colony in 1664, but the situation did not really change until 1682, when the area was included in William Penn's charter for Pennsylvania.
In 1681, in partial repayment of a debt, Charles II of England granted William Penn a charter for what would become the Pennsylvania colony. Despite the royal charter, Penn bought the land from the local Lenape to be on good terms with the Native Americans and ensure peace for his colony. Penn made a treaty of friendship with Lenape chief Tammany under an elm tree at Shackamaxon, in what is now the city's Fishtown section. Penn named the city Philadelphia, which is Greek for brotherly love (from philos, "love" or "friendship", and adelphos, "brother"). As a Quaker, Penn had experienced religious persecution and wanted his colony to be a place where anyone could worship freely. This tolerance, far more than afforded by most other colonies, led to better relations with the local Native tribes and fostered Philadelphia's rapid growth into America's most important city.
Penn planned a city on the Delaware River to serve as a port and place for government. Hoping that Philadelphia would become more like an English rural town instead of a city, Penn laid out roads on a grid plan to keep houses and businesses spread far apart, with areas for gardens and orchards. The city's inhabitants did not follow Penn's plans, as they crowded by the Delaware River, the port, and subdivided and resold their lots. Before Penn left Philadelphia for the last time, he issued the Charter of 1701 establishing it as a city. It became an important trading center, poor at first, but with tolerable living conditions by the 1750s. Benjamin Franklin, a leading citizen, helped improve city services and founded new ones, such as fire protection, a library, and one of the American colonies' first hospitals.
A number of important philosophical societies were formed, which were centers of the city's intellectual life: the Philadelphia Society for Promoting Agriculture (1785), the Pennsylvania Society for the Encouragement of Manufactures and the Useful Arts (1787), the Academy of Natural Sciences (1812), and the Franklin Institute (1824). These worked to develop and finance new industries and attract skilled and knowledgeable immigrants from Europe.
Philadelphia's importance and central location in the colonies made it a natural center for America's revolutionaries. By the 1750s, Philadelphia had surpassed Boston to become the largest city and busiest port in British America, and second in the British Empire, behind London. The city hosted the First Continental Congress before the American Revolutionary War; the Second Continental Congress, which signed the United States Declaration of Independence, during the war; and the Constitutional Convention (1787) after the war. Several battles were fought in and near Philadelphia as well.
Philadelphia served as the temporary capital of the United States, 1790–1800, while the Federal City was under construction in the District of Columbia. In 1793, the largest yellow fever epidemics in U.S. history killed at least 4,000 and up to 5,000 people in Philadelphia, roughly 10% of the city's population.
The state government left Philadelphia in 1799, and the federal government was moved to Washington, DC in 1800 with completion of the White House and Capitol. The city remained the young nation's largest with a population of nearly 50,000 at the turn of the 19th century; it was a financial and cultural center. Before 1800, its free black community founded the African Methodist Episcopal Church (AME), the first independent black denomination in the country, and the first black Episcopal Church. The free black community also established many schools for its children, with the help of Quakers. New York City soon surpassed Philadelphia in population, but with the construction of roads, canals, and railroads, Philadelphia became the first major industrial city in the United States.
Throughout the 19th century, Philadelphia had a variety of industries and businesses, the largest being textiles. Major corporations in the 19th and early 20th centuries included the Baldwin Locomotive Works, William Cramp and Sons Ship and Engine Building Company, and the Pennsylvania Railroad. Industry, along with the U.S. Centennial, was celebrated in 1876 with the Centennial Exposition, the first official World's Fair in the United States. Immigrants, mostly Irish and German, settled in Philadelphia and the surrounding districts. The rise in population of the surrounding districts helped lead to the Act of Consolidation of 1854, which extended the city limits of Philadelphia from the 2 square miles of present-day Center City to the roughly 130 square miles of Philadelphia County.
These immigrants were largely responsible for the first general strike in North America in 1835, in which workers in the city won the ten-hour workday. The city was a destination for thousands of Irish immigrants fleeing the Great Famine in the 1840s; housing for them was developed south of South Street, and was later occupied by succeeding immigrants. They established a network of Catholic churches and schools, and dominated the Catholic clergy for decades. Anti-Irish, anti-Catholic Nativist riots had erupted in Philadelphia in 1844. In the latter half of the century, immigrants from Russia, Eastern Europe and Italy; and African Americans from the southern U.S. settled in the city. Between 1880 and 1930, the African-American population of Philadelphia increased from 31,699 to 219,559. Twentieth-century black newcomers were part of the Great Migration out of the rural South to northern and midwestern industrial cities.
In the American Civil War, Philadelphia was represented by the Washington Grays (Philadelphia).
By the 20th century, Philadelphia had become known as "corrupt and contented", with a complacent population and an entrenched Republican political machine. The first major reform came in 1917 when outrage over the election-year murder of a police officer led to the shrinking of the Philadelphia City Council from two houses to just one. In July 1919, Philadelphia was one of more than 36 industrial cities nationally to suffer a race riot of ethnic whites against blacks during Red Summer, in post-World War I unrest, as recent immigrants competed with blacks for jobs. In the 1920s, the public flouting of Prohibition laws, organized crime or mob violence, and police involvement in illegal activities led to the appointment of Brigadier General Smedley Butler of the U.S. Marine Corps as director of public safety, but political pressure prevented any long-term success in fighting crime and corruption.
In 1940, non-Hispanic whites constituted 86.8% of the city's population. The population peaked at more than two million residents in 1950, then began to decline with the restructuring of industry, which led to the loss of many middle-class union jobs. In addition, suburbanization had been drawing off many of the wealthier residents to outlying railroad commuting towns and newer housing. The economic impact of these changes would reduce Philadelphia's tax base and the resources of local government. Philadelphia struggled through a long period of adjustment to these economic changes. The city in fact approached bankruptcy in the late 1980s. Revitalization and gentrification of neighborhoods began in the late 1970s and continues into the 21st century, with much of the development in the Center City and University City areas of the city. After many of the old manufacturers and businesses left Philadelphia or shut down, the city started attracting service businesses and began to more aggressively market itself as a tourist destination. Glass-and-granite skyscrapers were built in Center City. Historic areas such as Independence National Historical Park located in Old City and Society Hill were renovated during the reformist mayoral era of the 1950s through the 1980s. They are now among the most desirable living areas of Center City. This has slowed the city's 40-year population decline after it lost nearly one-quarter of its population.

Geographische Breite: 39.9525839, Geographische Länge: -75.16522150000003


Geburt

Treffer 1 bis 18 von 18

   Nachname, Taufnamen    Geburt    Personen-Kennung 
1 Bussey, Laura Eleanor  6 Jan 1912Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, USA I92524
2 Conway, John S.  17 Jul 1932Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, USA I83079
3 Etter, Catharine  10 Jan 1772Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, USA I59918
4 Fandrich, Darrel Gerald  31 Jan 1942Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, USA I95202
5 Loudance, Doris M.  um 1926Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, USA I193943
6 Lusson, Adele Merlin  23 Okt 1870Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, USA I27092
7 Lusson, Cornelia Armistead  1866Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, USA I27093
8 Moody, Eileen Marueen  26 Okt 1919Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, USA I25168
9 Moody, Thomas Leroy Jr.  um 1902Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, USA I25169
10 Morris, Hester Etty  30 Jul 1774Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, USA I32359
11 Muhlenberg, Catherine Salome  18 Apr 1764Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, USA I177881
12 Muhlenberg, Emanuel Samuel  11 Jul 1769Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, USA I177883
13 Muhlenberg, Francis Swaine  22 Apr 1795Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, USA I177861
14 Muhlenberg, John Enoch Samuel  21 Aug 1758Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, USA I177878
15 Somers, Eva Magdalena  6 Feb 1753Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, USA I32392
16 Somers, Katherine  1750Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, USA I32390
17 Somers, Sarah Jane  1753Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, USA I32391
18 Stahl, Yale  15 Okt 1927Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, USA I91951

Gestorben

Treffer 1 bis 11 von 11

   Nachname, Taufnamen    Gestorben    Personen-Kennung 
1 Baugher, Alexander Tobias  23 Apr 1921Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, USA I165186
2 Geesey, Joseph Henry II.  4 Jul 1932Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, USA I59907
3 Lydic, Frank E.  20 Mai 1963Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, USA I167828
4 Marshall, John  6 Jul 1835Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, USA I27366
5 Moody, Thomas Leroy Jr.  um 1935Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, USA I25169
6 Muhlenberg, Catherine Salome  20 Aug 1765Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, USA I177881
7 Muhlenberg, Emanuel Samuel  24 Dez 1769Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, USA I177883
8 Muhlenberg, John Enoch Samuel  16 Feb 1764Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, USA I177878
9 Raydle, Gladys  10 Okt 1989Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, USA I93187
10 Somers, Matthias  13 Jun 1761Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, USA I32387
11 Zimpleman, Orville I.  19 Okt 1997Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, USA I193942

Verheiratet

Treffer 1 bis 5 von 5

   Familie    Verheiratet    Familien-Kennung 
1 Creel / Fischer  28 Mai 1960Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, USA F14281
2 Lusson / Newton  1864Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, USA F9126
3 Moody / Laidley  24 Nov 1917Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, USA F8437
4 Schenckel / Bolender  20 Aug 1775Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, USA F51260
5 Somers / Somers  23 Okt 1749Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, USA F10910